konnect Issue-date: 31st Jan, 2019.

IOT - As I Understand and Intercept

Dr. KLS Sharma,
Senior Member,
Bangalore Section

Part 1: Background


Before we move to IoT, it may be worthwhile to discuss a few things on current status of the telecommunication.

General communication

This employed the following technologies:

Circuit switching (Speech and Telex)

Message switching or store-forward (Telex)

Packet switching (Data)

Telecoms companies have been providing facilities for speech and data communication on dedicated communication network. Data includes text, audio, and video. In addition to this, they also work as ISP (Internet Service Provider) to provide internet connectivity to the public at large. Internet uses packet switching.

Internet has changed the landscape of voice communication with VoIP technology. With the availability of technologies like 3G and above, higher bandwidth communication channels have become a reality. With this, voice communication is also being transferred to internet technology (VoIP). Already we have examples such as Skype, WhatsApp, etc. These are very efficient over high bandwidth channels, say 3G, 4G, etc.

Perhaps, in the time to come, all Telecoms will switchover to ISP providing all types of communication services. Higher the bandwidth better will be the service as the time taken to store the packet before forwarding becomes negligible.

Internet Communication

This started with data communication over internet using computer terminals at both ends. Some basics about internet are:

Internet of Things(IoT)

IoT has given a new dimension to the usage of internet and changed its landscape. The evolution steps are:

In the context of IT/OT convergence popularly used in automation domain, may be, we can call ‘Things’ as OT and the rest as IT.

Part 2: Implementation

The basic idea of IoT is to connect all the devices (anything and everything), collect their data, analyse, and manage them better.


The pre-requisite for this are:

IoT enabled devices are:

The typical set up is:

Important points to be noted in IoT are:


The above is an extract from author’s book Overview of Industrial Process Automation Systems (2nd Edition), Elsevier Inc., USA, 2016.

The above views by the author is open for review, corrections, and modifications, if required.